Mark Hosenball, Investigative Correspondent for Newsweek, stated in a June 9, 2003 Newsweek article "Return to Sender":
"Though details of the discovery [of 'dual-use' equipment] are classified, sources in Washington say that military and intelligence agencies launched an urgent investigation to find out how the weapons got to Iraq and whether American firms might have violated U.N. embargoes and U.S. laws. Recently the inquiry was abandoned when convincing evidence turned up that missiles had been exported legally from the United States to Iraq in the years before the first gulf war, when American policymakers cozied up to Saddam as a counterbalance to Iranian Ayatollahs."
Were there nations that did not comply with the UN sanctions on Iraq?
The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) stated in the Mar. 31, 2001 article "US Backs Down Over Iraq Sanctions":
"International support for the embargo has dwindled amid a growing perception that they hurt the Iraqi people more than President Saddam Hussein. The US and its allies are reported to be facing difficulties persuading Turkey, Syria and Jordan to give up their profits from a lucrative trade in smuggled Iraqi oil. Syria has been buying more than 100,000 barrels a day of Iraqi oil, at a discount because the money goes straight to the Iraqi Government, not to the UN account which receives most oil revenues."
The Energy Information Administration stated in a briefing paper titled "Iraq Country Analysis," posted on its website (accessed Feb. 25, 2003):
"In addition to U.N.-sanctioned oil exports to Jordan, which are currently carried by truck, there have been persistent reports that Iraq has smuggled 200,00-400,000 bbl/d of crude oil and products via a number of routes. These include:
1) to Turkey (as high as 100,000-150,000 bbl/d, mainly of fuel oil) by truck through the Habur border point (reportedly, this smuggling was stopped from September 18, 2001 through January 7, 2002)
2) to Jordan (possibly 10,000-30,000 bbl/d above domestic needs) by truck;
3) to Syria (150,000-200,000 bbl/d or more), mainly via the Kirkuk-Banias pipeline, with smaller volumes possibly moving via a railway line from Mosul to Aleppo;
4) to Iran along the Gulf coast and via Qais Island; and
5) to Dubai with the use of small tankers sailing from Umm Qasr.
Press reports have estimated that these illegal shipments may be providing Iraq with as much as $600 million-$2 billion per year in illegal revenues, while a U.S. General Accounting Office study released in May 2002 estimated that Iraq had earned $6.6 billion from oil smuggling and illegal surcharges from 1997 through 2001."
In January 2002, the United Kingdom directly accused Syria of violating U.N. sanctions on Iraq by shipping over 100,000 bbl/d of Iraqi oil to Syria without U.N. permission. An estimated $100 million or so per month of Iraq;s illegal oil export revenues are estimated to be coming from the Syria pipeline alone, with oil sold to Syria at a significant price discount off Kirkuk published prices."
Kelly Motz, Associate Director at the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, and Jordan Richie, former researcher at the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, stated in a Mar. 19, 2001 Asian Wall Street Journal article "Technology Two-Timing":
"U.S. intelligence sources confirm (despite a denial from the Chinese government) that Huawei Technologies, one of China's leading makers of communication networks, has helped Iraq outfit its air defenses with fiber optic equipment. The assistance was not approved by the United Nations, and thus violates the international embargo against Iraq."
Scott Ritter, former United Nations weapons inspector, stated in an Oct. 2001 letter to the editor published in Commentary Magazine:
"The critical fact is that none of the numerous transactions cited by the authors [Gary Milhollin and Kelly Motz, 'Shopping with Saddam Hussein']. was conducted in violation of relevant UN resolutions. With the exception of the foiled endeavor by Wi'am Gharbiah to bring in Russian ballistic-missiles components in 1995 (and even in that case the evidence points to a rogue operation rather than one orchestrated by the Iraqi government), Iraq was not prohibited from possessing any of the material in question, so long as it had been disclosed under the provisions of Resolution 715 (ongoing monitoring and verification) or 1051 (export-import control) prior to arrival in the country. And all items were indeed declared to UNSCOM within the required reporting period."