Last updated on: 6/18/2009 10:20:00 AM PST
What UN weapon inspections occurred in Iraq between 1991 and Mar. 19, 2003?
General Reference (not clearly pro or con)
"February 24, 1991: The Persian Gulf War ends, liberating Kuwait. Iraq agrees to end weapons of mass destruction programs and submit to U.N. inspections.
Feb. 6, 2009 - CNN
Daryl Kimball, Executive Director, and Paul Kerr, Research Analyst, both with the Arms Control Asssociation, wrote in a July 2003 article titled "Disarming Saddam - A Chronology of Iraq and UN Weapons Inspections" on www.armscontrol.org:
"Prior to the March 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1441 in November 2002 giving Iraq a “final opportunity” to comply with its disarmament requirements under previous Security Council resolutions. At issue was Iraq’s failure to provide an adequate accounting of its prohibited weapons programs or to convince UN inspectors that its weapons of mass destruction had been destroyed as Baghdad claimed.
July 2003 - Daryl Kimball
Paul K. Kerr
George A. Lopez, PhD, Director of Policy Studies at the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame, and David Cortright, PhD, President of the Fourth Freedom Forum, wrote in an article titled "Containing Iraq: Sanctions Worked" in the July/Aug. 2004 issue of Foreign Affairs:
"The United Nations sanctions that began in August 1990 were the longest running, most comprehensive, and most controversial in the history of the world body.
Most coverage of the weapons inspections that began after the Gulf War (1990-19991) focused on Baghdad's efforts to stall, evade, and obstruct UN monitors. But despite Saddam's recalcitrance, the record now shows that the UN disarmament program -- which Vice President Dick Cheney dubbed, 'the most intrusive system of arms control in history' -- decapitated Iraq's banned weapons programs and destroyed the infrastructure that would have allowed it to restart clandestine programs.
From 1991 to 1998, the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) identified and dismantled almost all of Iraq's prohibited weapons. In conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it conducted hundreds of inspection missions at weapons sites and documentation centers, systematically uncovering and eliminating Iraq's nuclear weapons program and most of its chemical, biological, and ballistic missile systems. After four months of further inspections from November 2002 until March 2003 -- which included 237 missions to 148 sites -- the UN Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) confirmed the depleted state of Iraq's capabilities.
When UN inspectors returned to Iraq in late 2002, they noted 'a surge of activity in the missile technology field.' UNMOVIC determined that the Al Samoud II missile exceeded the permitted range (150 kilometers) by 30 kilometers and discovered large chambers that could be used to produce missile rocket motors. But when UNMOVIC officials demanded that the missiles and the chambers be destroyed, Baghdad yielded: eradication was underway when the U.S. invasion began."
July-Aug. 2004 - George A. Lopez, PhD
David Cortright, PhD
Jeffrey Richelson, PhD, Editor of the National Security Archive at George Washington University (GWU), on Feb. 11, 2004 submitted an edited version of "National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 80: Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction" on GWU's National Security Archive website:
"In the aftermath of Iraq's  defeat, the U.S.-led U.N. coalition was able to compel Iraq to agree to an inspection and monitoring regime, intended to insure that Iraq dismantled its WMD programs and did not take actions to reconstitute them. The means of implementing the relevant U.N. resolutions was the Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM). That inspection regime continued until December 16, 1998...
Subsequent to George W. Bush's assumption of the presidency in January 2001, the U.S. made it clear that it would not accept what had become the status quo with respect to Iraq - a country ruled by Saddam Hussein and free to attempt to reconstitute its assorted weapons of mass destruction programs. As part of their campaign against the status quo, which included the clear threat of the eventual use of military force against the Iraqi regime, the U.S. and Britain published documents and provided briefings detailing their conclusions concerning Iraq's WMD programs and its attempts to deceive other nations about those programs.
As a result of the U.S. and British campaign, and after prolonged negotiations between the United States, Britain, France, Russia and other U.N. Security Council members, the United Nations declared that Iraq would have to accept even more intrusive inspections than under the previous inspection regime - to be carried out by the U.N. Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - or face 'serious consequences.' Iraq agreed to accept the U.N. decision and inspections resumed in late November 2002. On December 7, 2002, Iraq submitted its 12,000 page declaration, which claimed that it had no current WMD programs. Intelligence analysts from the United States and other nations immediately began to scrutinize the document, and senior U.S. officials quickly rejected the claims.
Over the next several months, inspections continued in Iraq, and the chief inspectors, Hans Blix (UNMOVIC) and Mohammed El Baradei (IAEA) provided periodic updates to the U.N. Security Council concerning the extent of Iraqi cooperation, what they had or had not discovered, and what they believed remained to be done."
Feb. 11, 2004 - Jeffrey Richelson, PhD