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United Nations Reference


  1. UNITED NATIONS
    The United Nations

  2. UNSCR
    The United Nations Security Council

  3. MEMBER STATES
    The Member States of the United Nations
  1. UNSCR Membership and Presidency
    The Members and Presidents of the Security Council

  2. UNSCOM
    The United Nations Special Commission

  3. UNMOVIC
    The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission
The following are statements of general reference which are not clearly pro or con. The statements are provided solely as a background resource to the question, "Should the US have attacked Iraq?"


I. THE UNITED NATIONS TOP

The United Nations stated in, "Basic Facts about the United Nations" (accessed June 13, 2003): 
  • "THE UNITED NATIONS: ORGANIZATION

    In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. The Organization officially came into existence on 24 Oct. 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 Oct..

    Charter

    The Charter is the constituting instrument of the United Nations, setting out the rights and obligations of Member States, and establishing the Organization's organs and procedures.

    Purposes

    The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these ends.

    Structure

    The six principal organs of the United Nations, are the: General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat. The United Nations family, however, is much larger, encompassing 15 agencies and several programmes and bodies.

    Budget

    The budget for the two years 2000-2001 is $2,535 million. The main source of funds is the contributions of Member States, which are assessed on a scale approved by the General Assembly.

    The fundamental criterion on which the scale of assessments is based is the capacity of countries to pay. This is determined by considering their relative shares of total gross national product, adjusted to take into account a number of factors, including their per capita incomes. In addition, countries are assessed -- in accordance with a modified version of the basic scale -- for the costs of peacekeeping operations, which stood at around $2 billion in 2000.

    The United Nations Family

    The United Nations family of organizations is made up of the United Nations Secretariat, the United Nations programmes and funds -- such as the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) -- and the specialized agencies. The programmes, funds and agencies have their own governing bodies and budgets, and set their own standards and guidelines. Together, they provide technical assistance and other forms of practical help in virtually all areas of economic and social endeavour."
    June 13, 2003 United Nations


II. The United Nations Security Council TOP

The United Nations stated in, "UN Security Council:Background" (accessed June 13, 2003):
  • The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. It is so organized as to be able to function continuously, and a representative of each of its members must be present at all times at United Nations Headquarters. On 31 Jan. 1992, the first ever Summit Meeting of the Council was convened at Headquarters, attended by Heads of State and Government of 13 of its 15 members and by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the remaining two. The Council may meet elsewhere than at Headquarters; in 1972, it held a session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and the following year in Panama City, Panama.

  • When a complaint concerning a threat to peace is brought before it, the Council's first action is usually to recommend to the parties to try to reach agreement by peaceful means. In some cases, the Council itself undertakes investigation and mediation. It may appoint special representatives or request the Secretary-General to do so or to use his good offices. It may set forth principles for a peaceful settlement.

  • When a dispute leads to fighting, the Council's first concern is to bring it to an end as soon as possible. On many occasions, the Council has issued cease-fire directives which have been instrumental in preventing wider hostilities. It also sends United Nations peace-keeping forces to help reduce tensions in troubled areas, keep opposing forces apart and create conditions of calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought. The Council may decide on enforcement measures, economic sanctions (such as trade embargoes) or collective military action.

  • A Member State against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. A Member State which has persistently violated the principles of the Charter may be expelled from the United Nations by the Assembly on the Council's recommendation.

  • A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that that country's interests are affected. Both Members of the United Nations and non-members, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, are invited to take part, without a vote, in the Council's discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-member State.

  • The Presidency of the Council rotates monthly, according to the English alphabetical listing of its member States."
    June 13, 2003 United Nations

III. THE Member States of the United Nations TOP

The following, from the United Nations website "List of Member States" (accessed July 29, 2004), listed the 191 Member States of the United Nations, with dates on which they joined the Organization.

Member State Date of Admission
Afghanistan 19 Nov. 1946
Albania 14 Dec. 1955
Algeria 8 Oct. 1962
Andorra 28 July 1993
Angola 1 Dec. 1976
Antigua and Barbuda 11 Nov. 1981
Argentina 24 Oct. 1945
Armenia 2 Mar. 1992
Australia 1 Nov. 1945
Austria 14 Dec. 1955
Azerbaijan 2 Mar. 1992
Bahamas 18 Sep. 1973
Bahrain 21 Sep. 1971
Bangladesh 17 Sep. 1974
Barbados 9 Dec. 1966
Belarus* 24 Oct. 1945
*On 19 Sep. 1991, Byelorussia informed the United Nations that it had changed its name to Belarus.
Belgium 27 Dec. 1945
Belize 25 Sep. 1981
Benin 20 Sep. 1960
Bhutan 21 Sep. 1971
Bolivia 14 Nov. 1945
Bosnia and Herzegovina* 22 May 1992
*The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 Oct. 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/46/237 of 22 May 1992.

Botswana 17 Oct. 1966
Brazil 24 Oct. 1945
Brunei Darussalam 21 Sep. 1984
Bulgaria 14 Dec. 1955
Burkina Faso 20 Sep. 1960
Burundi 18 Sep. 1962
Cambodia 14 Dec. 1955
Cameroon 20 Sep. 1960
Canada 9 Nov. 1945
Cape Verde 16 Sep. 1975
Central African Republic 20 Sep. 1960
Chad 20 Sep. 1960
Chile 24 Oct. 1945
China 24 Oct. 1945
Colombia 5 Nov. 1945
Comoros 12 Nov. 1975
Congo 20 Sep. 1960
Costa Rica 2 Nov. 1945
Côte d'Ivoire 20 Sep. 1960
Croatia* 22 May 1992
*The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 Oct. 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

The Republic of Croatia was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/46/238 of 22 May 1992.

Cuba 24 Oct. 1945
Cyprus 20 Sep. 1960
Czech Republic* 19 Jan. 1993
*Czechoslovakia was an original Member of the United Nations from 24 Oct. 1945. In a letter dated 10 Dec. 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic would cease to exist on 31 Dec. 1992 and that the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as successor States, would apply for membership in the United Nations. Following the receipt of its application, the Security Council, on 8 Jan. 1993, recommended to the General Assembly that the Czech Republic be admitted to United Nations membership. The Czech Republic was thus admitted on 19 Jan. of that year as a Member State.
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 17 Sep. 1991
Democratic Republic of the Congo 20 Sep. 1960
Denmark 24 Oct. 1945
Djibouti 20 Sep. 1977
Dominica 18 Dec. 1978
Dominican Republic 24 Oct. 1945
Ecuador 21 Dec. 1945
Egypt* 24 Oct. 1945
*Egypt and Syria were original Members of the United Nations from 24 Oct. 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 Feb. 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single Member. On 13 Oct. 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent State, resumed its separate membership in the United Nations. On 2 Sep. 1971, the United Arab Republic changed its name to the Arab Republic of Egypt.
El Salvador 24 Oct. 1945
Equatorial Guinea 12 Nov. 1968
Eritrea 28 May 1993
Estonia 17 Sep. 1991
Ethiopia 13 Nov. 1945
Fiji 13 Oct. 1970
Finland 14 Dec. 1955
France 24 Oct. 1945
Gabon 20 Sep. 1960
Gambia 21 Sep. 1965
Georgia 31 July 1992
Germany* 18 Sep. 1973
*The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic were admitted to membership in the United Nations on 18 Sep. 1973. Through the accession of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany, effective from 3 Oct. 1990, the two German States have united to form one sovereign State.
Ghana 8 Mar. 1957
Greece 25 Oct. 1945
Grenada 17 Sep. 1974
Guatemala 21 Nov. 1945
Guinea 12 Dec. 1958
Guinea-Bissau 17 Sep. 1974
Guyana 20 Sep. 1966
Haiti 24 Oct. 1945
Honduras 17 Dec. 1945
Hungary 14 Dec. 1955
Iceland 19 Nov. 1946
India 30 Oct. 1945
Indonesia* 28 Sep. 1950
*By letter of 20 Jan. 1965, Indonesia announced its decision to withdraw from the United Nations "at this stage and under the present circumstances." By telegram of 19 Sep. 1966, it announced its decision "to resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities." On 28 Sep. 1966, the General Assembly took note of this decision and the President invited representatives of Indonesia to take seats in the Assembly.
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 24 Oct. 1945
Iraq 21 Dec. 1945
Ireland 14 Dec. 1955
Israel 11 May 1949
Italy 14 Dec. 1955
Jamaica 18 Sep. 1962
Japan 18 Dec. 1956
Jordan 14 Dec. 1955
Kazakhstan 2 Mar. 1992
Kenya 16 Dec. 1963
Kiribati 14 Sept. 1999
Kuwait 14 May 1963
Kyrgyzstan 2 Mar. 1992
Lao People's Democratic Republic 14 Dec. 1955
Latvia 17 Sep. 1991
Lebanon 24 Oct. 1945
Lesotho 17 Oct. 1966
Liberia 2 Nov. 1945
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 14 Dec. 1955
Liechtenstein 18 Sep. 1990
Lithuania 17 Sep. 1991
Luxembourg 24 Oct. 1945
Madagascar 20 Sep. 1960
Malawi 1 Dec. 1964
Malaysia* 17 Sep. 1957
*The Federation of Malaya joined the United Nations on 17 Sep. 1957. On 16 Sep. 1963, its name was changed to Malaysia, following the admission to the new federation of Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Singapore became an independent State on 9 Aug. 1965 and a Member of the United Nations on 21 Sep. 1965.
Maldives 21 Sep. 1965
Mali 28 Sep. 1960
Malta 1 Dec. 1964
Marshall Islands 17 Sep. 1991
Mauritania 27 Oct. 1961
Mauritius 24 Apr. 1968
Mexico 7 Nov. 1945
Micronesia (Federated States of) 17 Sep. 1991
Monaco 28 May 1993
Mongolia 27 Oct. 1961
Morocco 12 Nov. 1956
Mozambique 16 Sep. 1975
Myanmar 19 Apr. 1948
Namibia 23 Apr. 1990
Nauru 14 Sept. 1999
Nepal 14 Dec. 1955
Netherlands 10 Dec. 1945
New Zealand 24 Oct. 1945
Nicaragua 24 Oct. 1945
Niger 20 Sep. 1960
Nigeria 7 Oct. 1960
Norway 27 Nov. 1945
Oman 7 Oct. 1971
Pakistan 30 Sep. 1947
Palau 15 Dec. 1994
Panama 13 Nov. 1945
Papua New Guinea 10 Oct. 1975
Paraguay 24 Oct. 1945
Peru 31 Oct. 1945
Philippines 24 Oct. 1945
Poland 24 Oct. 1945
Portugal 14 Dec. 1955
Qatar 21 Sep. 1971
Republic of Korea 17 Sep. 1991
Republic of Moldova 2 Mar. 1992
Romania 14 Dec. 1955
Russian Federation* 24 Oct. 1945
*The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was an original Member of the United Nations from 24 Oct. 1945. In a letter dated 24 Dec. 1991, Boris Yeltsin, the President of the Russian Federation, informed the Secretary-General that the membership of the Soviet Union in the Security Council and all other United Nations organs was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the 11 member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Rwanda 18 Sep. 1962
Saint Kitts and Nevis 23 Sep. 1983
Saint Lucia 18 Sep. 1979
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16 Sep. 1980
Samoa 15 Dec. 1976
San Marino 2 Mar. 1992
Sao Tome and Principe 16 Sep. 1975
Saudi Arabia 24 Oct. 1945
Senegal 28 Sep. 1960
Serbia and Montenegro* 1 Nov. 2000
*The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 Oct. 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/55/12 of 1 Nov. 2000.
Following the adoption and the promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro by the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 4 Feb. 2003, the name of the State of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was changed to Serbia and Montenegro.
Seychelles 21 Sep. 1976
Sierra Leone 27 Sep. 1961
Singapore 21 Sep. 1965
Slovakia* 19 Jan. 1993
*Czechoslovakia was an original Member of the United Nations from 24 Oct. 1945. In a letter dated 10 Dec. 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republicwould cease to exist on 31 Dec. 1992 and that the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as successor States, would apply for membership in the United Nations. Following the receipt of its application, the Security Council, on 8 Jan. 1993, recommended to the General Assembly that the Slovak Republic be admitted to United Nations membership. The Slovak Republic was thus admitted on 19 Jan. of that year as a Member State.
Slovenia* 22 May 1992
*The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 Oct. 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Republic of Slovenia was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/46/236 of 22 May 1992.
Solomon Islands 19 Sep. 1978
Somalia 20 Sep. 1960
South Africa 7 Nov. 1945
Spain 14 Dec. 1955
Sri Lanka 14 Dec. 1955
Sudan 12 Nov. 1956
Suriname 4 Dec. 1975
Swaziland 24 Sep. 1968
Sweden 19 Nov. 1946
Switzerland 10 Sep. 2002
Syrian Arab Republic* 24 Oct. 1945
*Egypt and Syria were original Members of the United Nations from 24 Oct. 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 Feb. 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single Member. On 13 Oct. 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent State, resumed its separate membership in the United Nations.
Tajikistan 2 Mar. 1992
Thailand 16 Dec. 1946
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia* 8 Apr. 1993
*The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 Oct. 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
By resolution A/RES/47/225 of 8 Apr. 1993, the General Assembly decided to admit as a Member of the United Nations the State being provisionally referred to for all purposes within the United Nations as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" pending settlement of the difference that had arisen over its name.
Timor-Leste 27 Sep. 2002
Togo 20 Sep. 1960
Tonga 14 Sep. 1999
Trinidad and Tobago 18 Sep. 1962
Tunisia 12 Nov. 1956
Turkey 24 Oct. 1945
Turkmenistan 2 Mar. 1992
Tuvalu 5 Sept. 2000
Uganda 25 Oct. 1962
Ukraine 24 Oct. 1945
United Arab Emirates 9 Dec. 1971
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 24 Oct. 1945
United Republic of Tanzania* 14 Dec. 1961)
*Tanganyika was a Member of the United Nations from 14 Dec. 1961 and Zanzibar was a Member from 16 Dec. 1963. Following the ratification on 26 Apr. 1964 of Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar continued as a single Member, changing its name to the United Republic of Tanzania on 1 Nov. 1964.
United States of America 24 Oct. 1945
Uruguay 18 Dec. 1945
Uzbekistan 2 Mar. 1992
Vanuatu 15 Sep. 1981
Venezuela 15 Nov. 1945
Viet Nam 20 Sep. 1977
Yemen* 30 Sep. 1947
*Yemen was admitted to membership in the United Nations on 30 Sep. 1947 and Democratic Yemen on 14 Dec. 1967. On 22 May 1990, the two countries merged and have since been represented as one Member with the name "Yemen."
Zambia 1 Dec. 1964
Zimbabwe 25 Aug. 1980

Source: UN Press Release ORG/1317 (Sep. 26, 2000) - Updated Apr. 24, 2003
July 29, 2004United Nations


IV. THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERSHIP AND PRESIDENCY (for years 2004 and 2003) TOP

The United Nations website stated in "Membership and Presidency of the Security Council in 2004" that the Security Council has 15 members -- five permanent members and 10 elected by the General Assembly -- for two-year terms. Membership and Presidency of the Security Council in 2004 was:
MONTH PRESIDENCY MEMBERSHIP TERM ENDS
Jan. Chile 31 Dec. 2004
Feb. China Permanent Member
Mar. France Permanent Member
Apr. Germany 31 Dec. 2004
May Pakistan 31 Dec. 2004
June Philippines 31 Dec. 2005
July Romania 31 Dec. 2005
Aug. Russian Federation Permanent Member
Sep. Spain 31 Dec. 2004
Oct. United Kingdom Permanent Member
Nov. United States Permanent Member
Dec. Algeria 31 Dec. 2005

Angola 31 Dec. 2004

Benin 31 Dec. 2005

Brazil 31 Dec. 2005

  • The Following countries began their two-year membership term on 1 Jan. 2004 - Algeria, Benin, Brazil, Philippines, and Romania."
    July 30, 2004 United Nations


The following was stated on the United Nations website in "Membership and Presidency of the Security Council in 2003" (accessed June 13, 2003):
  • The Council has 15 members -- five permanent members and 10 elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. Membership and Presidency of the Security Council in 2003:
MONTH PRESIDENCY MEMBERSHIP TERM ENDS
Jan. France Permanent Member
Feb. Germany 31 Dec. 2004
Mar. Guinea 31 Dec. 2003
Apr. Mexico 31 Dec. 2003
May Pakistan 31 Dec. 2004
June Russian Federation Permanent Member
July Spain 31 Dec. 2004
Aug. Syrian Arab Republic 31 Dec. 2003
Sep. United Kingdom Permanent Member
Oct. United States Permanent Member
Nov. Angola 31 Dec. 2004
Dec. Bulgaria 31 Dec. 2003

Cameroon 31 Dec. 2003

China Permanent Member

Chile 31 Dec. 2004

  • The Following countries began their two-year membership term on Jan. 2003; Angola, Chile, Germany, Pakistan, and Spain.

    Each Council member has one vote. Decisions on procedural matters are made by an affirmative vote of at least nine of the 15 members. Decisions on substantive matters require nine votes, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. This is the rule of 'great Power unanimity', often referred to as the 'veto' power.

    Under the Charter, all Members of the United nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. While other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to Governments, the Council alone has the power to take decisions which Member States are obligated under the Charter to carry out."
    June 13, 2003 United Nations

V. THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMISSION (UNSCOM) TOP

The United Nations stated in, "UNSCOM: Basic Facts" (accessed June 13, 2003):
  • "Establishment

    By its resolution 687 of 3 Apr. 1991, the United Nations Security Council established the terms and conditions for the formal cease-fire between Iraq and the coalition of Member States co-operating with Kuwait. Section C of this resolution called for the elimination, under international supervision, of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometers(km.), together with related items and production facilities. It also called for measures to ensure that the acquisition and production of prohibited items were not resumed. The United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was set up to implement the non-nuclear provision of the resolution and to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the nuclear areas. The precise terms are laid out in paragraphs 7 to 13 of the resolution.

    Composition

    On 18 Apr. 1991, after Iraq had formally accepted the provisions of resolution 687, the Secretary-General submitted to the Security Council his report regarding the establishment of the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM). Following acceptance by the Security Council of the report on 19 Apr., the Secretary-General appointed Ambassador Rolf Ekeus (Sweden) as the Executive Chairman of the Special Commission. On 1 May 1991, the Secretary-General appointed 20 other members of the Commission, from Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, the United States and Venezuela.

    Mr. Richard Butler (Australia) replaced Ambassador Rolf Ekeus as the Executive Chairman on 1 July 1997. Mr. Butler completed his two-year tenure as Executive Chairman on 30 June 1999. A successor was not appointed. The Deputy Executive Chairman, Mr. Charles Duelfer (United States), was officer-in-charge from 1 July 1999, to 17 Dec. 1999, at which time UNSCOM was replaced by the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) through the adoption of resolution 1248 (1999) of 17 Dec. 1999.

    Full sessions of members of the Commission have been held approximately twice yearly in New York to discuss policy issues and to assess the results of operations to date."
    June 13, 2003 United Nations


VI. THE UNITED NATIONS MONITORING, VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION COMMISSION (UNMOVIC) TOP

The United Nations stated in, "UNMOVIC: Basic Facts" (accessed June 13, 2003):
  • "The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) was created through the adoption of Security Council resolution 1284 of 17 Dec. 1999. UNMOVIC was to replace the former UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) and continue with the latter's mandate to disarm Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction (chemical, biological weapons and missiles with a range of more than 150 km.), and to operate a system of ongoing monitoring and verification to check Iraq's compliance with its obligations not to re-acquire the same weapons prohibited by the Security Council.

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations appointed Dr. Hans Blix of Sweden to be the Commissions Executive Chairman. In addition, the Secretary-General appointed 16 individuals to serve on the College of Commissioners of UNMOVIC which provides advice and guidance to the Chairman in the execution of his duties. In conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, the Commission's staff are selected on the basis of securing the highest standard of efficiency, competence and integrity, taking into consideration the importance of recruiting staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible. The Commission's staff include weapons specialists, analysts, scientists, engineers and operational planners.

    The Commission is financed from a small portion of the monies raised from the export of oil from Iraq (the 'oil-for-food' programme). Unlike its predecessor, UNSCOM, the staff of UNMOVIC are employees of the United Nations. In addition to the Office of the Chairman with executive, legal and liason functions, UNMOVIC comprises four divisions (Planning and Operations, Analysis and Assessment, Information, Technical Support and Training) as well as an administrative service. The Commission maintains its headquarters at the United Nations in New York.

    The executive Chairman is required to report to the Security Council on the activities of UNMOVIC every three months. In accordance with the resolution establishing UNMOVIC, he must consult the College of Commissioners on written reports to the Council. Thus, the College of Commissioners of UNMOVIC meets at least four times a year in closed session to discuss the report and other organizational and operational activities."
    June 13, 2003 United Nations