1944 Alexandria Protocol
The following description of the first Arab conference that resulted in the drafting of the Alexandria Protocol which led to the formation of the League of Arab States was taken from the book by Dilip Hiro The Essential Middle East published in 2003:
GENERAL REFERENCE (not clearly pro or con)
"In early 1942, faced with the prospect of Germany conquering North Africa, including Egypt, Britian tried to sway popular Arab opinion toward the Allies by publicly favoring the idea of unity of the Arab world, extending from the Atlantic to the Persian Gulf.
Having countered the German threat, soon after London acted behind the scenes to bring about a preliminary Arab conference in the Egyptian city of Alexandria in September-October 1944.
It was attended by official representatives of Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, North Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Trans-jordan as well as a Palestinian observer on behalf of the Arab Palestinians."
The following is the text of the "Alexandria Protocol," taken from the League of Arab States website on January 6, 2005:
"The chiefs and members of the Syrian, Trans-Jordanian, Iraqi, Lebanese and Egyptian delegations at the Preliminary Committee of the General Arab Conference, anxious to strengthen and consolidate the ties which bind all Arab countries and to direct them toward the welfare of the Arab world, to improve its conditions, insure its future, and realize its hopes and aspiration, and in response to Arab public opinion in all Arab countries, have met at Alexandria from Shawwal 8, 1363 (September 25, 1944) to Shawwal 20, 1363 (October 7, 1944) in the form of a Preliminary Committee of the General Arab Conferences, and have agreed as follows:
In faith of which this protocol has been signed at Faruq I University at Alexandria on Saturday, Shawwal 20, 1363 (October 7,1944)."
- League of Arab States
A league will be formed of the independent Arab States, which consent to join the League. It will have a council which will be known as the "Council of the League of Arab States" in Which all participating states will be represented on an equal footing.
The object of the League will be to control the execution of the agreements, which the above states will conclude; to hold periodic meetings which will strengthen the relations between those states; to coordinate their political plans so as to insure their cooperation, and protect their independence and sovereignty against every aggression by suitable means; and to supervise in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries.
The decisions of the Council will be binding on those who have accepted them except in cases where a disagreement arises between two member states of the League in which the two parties shall refer their dispute to the Council for solution. In this case the decision of the Council of the League will be binding.
In no case will resort to force to settle a dispute between any two member states of the League be allowed. But every state shall be free to conclude with any other member state of the League, or other powers, special agreements, which do not contradict the text or spirit of the present dispositions. In no case will the adoption of a foreign policy, which may be prejudicial to the policy of the League or an individual member state be allowed.
The Council will intervene in every dispute, which may lead to war between a member state or power, so as to reconcile them.
A subcommittee will be formed of the members of the Preliminary Committee to prepare a draft of the statutes of the Council of the league and to examine the political questions which may be the object of agreement among Arab States.
- Cooperation in economic, cultural, social and other matters
- The Arab States represented on the Preliminary Committee shall closely cooperate in the following matters:
- Economic and financial matters, i.e., commercial exchange, customs, currency, agriculture, and industry.
- Communications, i.e., railways, roads, aviation, navigation, posts and telegraphs.
- Cultural Matters
- Questions of nationality, passports, visas, execution of judgments, extradition of criminals, etc.
- Social Questions
- Questions of public health
The Committee also declares that it is second to none in regretting the woes which have been inflicted upon the Jews of Europe by European dictatorial states. But the question of these Jews should not be confused with Zionism, for there can be no greater injustice and aggression than solving the problem of the Jews of Europe by another injustice, i.e., by inflicting injustice on the Arabs of Palestine of various religions and denominations.
The special proposal concerning that participation of the Arab Governments and peoples in the 'Arab National Fund' to safeguard the lands of the Arabs of Palestine shall be referred to the committee of financial and economic affairs to examine it from all is angles and to submit the result of that examination to the Preliminary Committee in its next meeting.
The Committee declares its support of the cause of the Arabs of Palestine and its willingness to work for the achievement of their legitimate aim and the safeguarding of their just rights.
- A subcommittee of experts for each of the above subjects will be formed in which the states which have participated in the Preliminary Committee will be represented. This subcommittee will prepare draft regulations for cooperation in the above matters, describing the extent and means of that collaboration.
- A committee for coordination and editing will be formed whose object will be to control the work of the other subcommittees to coordinate that part of the work which is accomplished, and to prepare drafts of agreements which will be submitted to the various governments.
- When all the subcommittees have accomplished their work, the Preliminary Committee will meet to examine the work of the subcommittees as a preliminary step towards the holding of a General Arab Conference.
- Consolidation of These Ties in the Future
While expressing its satisfaction at such a happy step, the Committee hopes that Arab States will be able in the future to consolidate that step by other steps, especially if postwar events should result in institutions which bind various Powers more closely together.
- A Special Resolution Concerning Lebanon
The Arab States represented on the Preliminary Committee emphasize their respect of the independence and sovereignty of Lebanon in its present frontiers, which the governments of the above States have already recognized in consequence of Lebanon's adoption of an independent policy, which the Government of that country announced in its program of October 7, 1943, unanimously approved by the Lebanese Chamber of Deputies.
- A Special Resolution Concerning Palestine
- The Committee is of the opinion that Palestine constitutes an important part of the Arab World and that the right of the Arabs in Palestine cannot be touched without prejudice to peace and stability in the Arab World.
The Committee also is of the opinion that the pledges binding the British Government and providing for the cessation of Jewish immigration, the preservation of Arab lands, and the achievement of independence for Palestine are permanent Arab rights whose prompt implementation would constitute a step toward the desired goal and toward the stabilization of peace and security.
The Committee declares its support of the cause of the Arabs of Palestine and its willingness to work for the achievement of their legitimate aims and the safeguarding of their Just rights.
The Committee also declares that it is second to none in regretting the woes which have been inflicted upon the Jews of Europe by European dictatorial states. But the question of these Jews should not be confused with Zionism, for there can be no greater injustice and aggression than solving the problem of the Jews of Europe by another injustice, i.e., by inflicting injustice on the Arabs of Palestine of various religions and denominations.<
- The special proposal concerning the participation Of the Arab Governments and peoples in the "Arab National Fund" to safeguard the lands of the Arabs of Palestine shall be referred to the committee of financial and economic affairs to examine it from all its angles and to submit the result of that examination to the Preliminary Committee in its next meeting.
Jan. 6, 2005 Arab League
1. Translation of the official communique of the Pan-Arab Preliminary Conference made by the American Legation, Cairo; and collated with the Arabic text published in al-Ahram (Cairo), Oct. 8,1944, p. 3.